by Michael Neal
Caitlín and John Matthews, in The Western
Way, made a fundamental distinction in the categorisation of western
esoteric arts. Two central orientations are differentiated: these
are the Native and the Hermetic traditions.
The significance of this distinction
lies in the fact that with the great renewal of interest in esoteric
matters, especially within the magical and pagan areas, some confusion
is emerging over the issues of 'sources' and 'validity' of the
emerging traditions. The difference between the traditions are
often stressed rather than their similarities. In any multifaceted
revival movement, claims of uniqueness (over and above brother
and sister traditions), are often emphasised so as to delineate
their own individuality... and so the many branches of contemporary
esotericism strive to stake their claim to authenticity and hopefully
Trying to come to terms with
this great diversity of traditions and systems can be a headache
for the interested lay person. It is here that the work of the
Matthews comes as a breath of fresh air. The categorisation mentioned
above (i.e. Native and hermetic) is a common sense starting point
in understanding the relationships between the traditions. Although
it must not be thought that this represents a clear cut distinction.
It will be suggested that the meeting point or area of commonality
of these two broad labels is found in the depths of the Underworld.
Firstly, the two orientations
will be briefly outlined. Secondly, how they are linked and find
their commonality within the Underworld will follow. And lastly,
a discussion on the relationships between force & form, and
between pattern and consciousness will conclude the paper. The
underlying purpose of this essay is to attempt to demonstrate
that questions of authenticity and validity in esoteric pursuits
derive solely from the root agent of things which, following the
work of R.J. Stewart and the Matthew's, is the Underworld, and
do not derive from Charters, secret and costly initiations, or
from 'authoritative' and 'authorised' lineage... No one has a
copyright on the Mysteries'; it cannot be gratuitously communicated
via elaborate initiation rites and the like. All these 'aids'
are props to help instigate the transformation process. They are
the externalities, the glamour which, without the power of the
Root Agent, called in alchemy the Secret Fire, all is done in
vain. I'm not suggesting that genuine Schools don't exist; only
that they are becoming more rare, and that the 'externalities'
can obscure, rather than clarify the situation. Indeed, they can
become the central concern, dominating instead of aiding the initiatory
The Native tradition is characterised
by its emphasis on the development of a subtle awareness, directed
towards the Earth as an entity aware and conscious of those living
on Her surface. This involves recognition of the Goddess in her
many forms and attributes. Concepts of 'deity' are viewed as being
external to the individual to which the individual relates in
an harmonious manner, or so it may appear to an observer. However,
the inner workings are somewhat more involved. The objective dynamics
of the Goddess/God are sought within the individuality - intrapsychically.
A parallelism occurs when the individual senses that the duality
of inner/outer (the Westem split between mind and matter) is an
illusion. There is an interpenetration of the outer and the inner
worlds, the two reflect each other; ideally they merge into one
Therefore, achieving harmony
with the rhythms and patterns of nature and the balancing out
of elemental forces are the fundamental objectives. Each particular
way within the Native tradition possess its own philosophy with
regard to what follows from this point. The majority support the
idea of the instigation of reform either on the religious, social
or political fronts, or reform in a metaphysical sense, meaning
the revival of long forgotten Goddess forms, and the regeneration
of magical currents since laid dormant etc. Working towards
the preservation of the tradition(s) is also a primary objective.
Although seasonal rites, Goddess and God worship etc., are considered
important their work does not stop there. The Native tradition
possesses a complete and complex mythology and practice, which
carries the significance of the seasons, elemental workings and
Goddess/God cycles, on to a higher cycle of experience and encounter.
The Native tradition has always
existed in one form or another. Its practitioners have never let
the art become totally forgotten. In this regard it is to be noted
that the continuators of the Native traditions are traditionally
the 'common' wo/man. It is passed on often in the form of folk
traditions, stories and song, 'superstitions' and the like. It
is worth noting in this context the words of H. Bayley that
traditional lore in the form of fairytales, for example, "have
not descended from the educated to the 'uneducated' classes (as
was once believed) but vice versa, have emanated, as it were,
from the soil ascending from the cottage to the castle."
A resurgence of interest in the
Native tradition has recently made itself felt as the Old Religion
or Wicca. Its emphasis on the Goddess, the Earth and her seasons
clearly mark it out as being oriented towards the Native tradition.
Also included in this area is what has become known as Traditional,
Hereditary and Family Witchcraft. These more elusive traditions
appear to possess much of the content of the Native tradition
proper. For example they are not dependant on literary source,
as is much of contemporary Hermetically based tradition: although
the same criticism can also be applied to much of 20th century
wicca (see Crafting the Art of Magic by A.Kelly). This point is
of some importance. Native traditions are primal, therefore, the
only real requirement is experiential - little attention or emphasis
is given to literary esotericism. Practise is not a matter of
intellectuality but of intuition and inner perception.
The Hermetic tradition on the
other hand stresses the acquisition and pursuit of knowledge,
as knowledge is believed to hold the keys to insight and power.
Deity is seen as reflected within wo/man rather than external
to her/him. Alterations in consciousness evolving on a patterned
scale, is the objective. The alchemical formula; Solve et Coagula
is here seen as a key concept, in that 'movements' of awareness
necessitate a basic change in the structure of consciousness.
The forces of Nature, and the
deities of antiquity are viewed as personifications and/or attributes
of God (macrocosmically) and of Man (microcosmically). But the
point of balance is Man: Man as the interstasis of existence i.e.
Man's spiritual composition extends from his highest point (Yechidah,
Atman etc.), which is in contact with the highest principle, to
his lowest point (Soma, Earth) which is materiality; so the saying:"all
the Universe flows through Man" takes on great significance.
Seen from this perspective the duality of Inner and Outer becomes
Things get somewhat confused
when for example, the pagan or wiccan religions are interpreted
and practised with a hermetic slant or vice versa. This could
be said of Jung for example, he interprets the Gods as projections
of unconscious functionaries; i.e. he takes what some accept as
external to be based and motivated from the internal realm. Although
it is really a question of understanding how different levels
of reality intermingle. For example, the Gods can be seen as external
and objective, both the Native and Hermetic practitioner often
act as if this were the case but this does not preclude both traditions
from also considering the Gods as reflected within, acting suspiciously
like Jung's archetypes..The real essence here though, is that
the Native tradition seems to prefer to view the Gods as extemal,
while the Hermetic prefers to view them internally. The two perspectives
are not mutually exclusive and much crossover occurs on both sides.
Another important distinction
between the two is that the Native traditions could be defined
as a religion whereas the Hermetic tends towards the metaphysical
and philosophical relying on techniques of consciousness alteration
and paradigm construction and deconstruction. 'God' is generally
seen as impersonal, leaving the individual free to construct his/her
own individualistic representation and approach.
In the practical field the distinction
between the two orientations is generally not so clear. For example,
many symbols and techniques of the Hermetic school are employed
in various wiccan and pagan Groups and the reverse of this applies.
More practically, many pagans and neo-pagans are also involved
in the Hermetic tradition, and vice versa. Their overlap and interpenetration
is to be expected. as the elements in both traditions are archetypally
breaking cultural and temporal boundaries.
R.J.Stewart has had much to say
as to what constitutes a genuine tradition. For example, Stewart
criticises both Hermetic and Native traditions which are currently
popularised in a literary form. He believes them to lack any real
foundation in oral and primal traditions; largely being creations
of early esotericists, rather than the regeneration of genuine
magical arts. This is not to say that the traditions don't work
but it may indicate that the traditions are not necessarily complete.
He emphasises the superiority
of culture specific traditions in distinction to foreign esotericisms.
These traditions are currently undergoing 'regeneration' by neo-pagans
and Hermeticists alike. Examples are the Celtic, Norse, Arthurian
and Native American and more recently, the Australian Aboriginal
tradition. The distinction is between purely literary and syncretically
based systems with little or no innerworlds source and inspiration,
with the more specific, culturally determined system, explored
via oral and textual sources. The result of the latter variety
is a system which attempts to regenerate a once living tradition
which remains in the group consciousness of one's country. This
last point is thought to be the crucial factor. This is a particularly
tricky area, as it is clear, for example that, for a system to
work in a magical sense, historical authenticity is not necessarily
required. The mythos of Blake for example has little historicity
but constitutes a profound magical and prophetic philosophy. Much
the same applies to the Golden Dawn, Enochian and Atlantian systems.
Stewart however, is suggesting that authenticity derives from
the regeneration of historical cults and traditions of one's own
land. This seems to clash with the Hermetic tradition of creativity
and syncretism (for example look at the sources that make up the
Golden Dawn tradition). On these grounds Stewart tends to denigerate
both Native and Hermetic practice. This is unfortunate as they
have a Great Deal to offer the sincere student.
The revival of specific pagan
religions en masse, to the extent that is possible, isn't in my
view necessarily 'Magic'; Hermetic or Native. They are specific
culturally based Religions and should be designated as such. But,
as the sources are often fragmentary and incomplete, it is to
the magical traditions that the regenerators of these religions
turn to, to fill in the gaps. Therefore, they possess both traditional
and magical elements, forming a synthesis. In this way 'Magic'
could be designated as a post-traditional practice applied to
pre-Christian religions. Indeed the apparent discrepancy between
ancient magical practice and modern magical practice has been
commented upon by several contemporary authors but is rarely elaborated
It is the belief of Stewart that
all magical traditions in the West have their roots in what he
calls the Underworld tradition. This provides the meeting point
of all the divergent traditions in force today. Says Stewart,
"for a cult or religion to have validity, to have regenerative
power, it must have its roots in the underworld, no matter what
direction it chooses to grow thereafter" . Though, "One
must be careful how one interprets the words 'underworld tradition'"
for it is only a restatement of the magician's 'Inner world' or
Astral light. Dion Fortune clearly specified the difference between
a school that was contacted and one that was not. This seems to
be what Stewart is saying when he says that the tradition's validity
originates within the Underworld. All magical traditions derive
from a common matrix. On a deep level this matrix is the generative
source of being. This is the essential 'contact' necessary for
any tradition to function adequately. This is the inner point
of commonality between all genuine traditions. From this point
onwards, differences are generated by differing cultural, social
and geographical determinants.
The underworld therefore plays
a pivotal role in both native and hermetic traditions, although
the emphasis may differ. Perhaps more importantly, how the underworld
is conceptualised in the traditions, also differs widely.
What then is the Underworld?
It is a place, or 'locale' of transformation. It is perceived
and mythologised as an underworld domain wherein individuals are
subject to specific imagery, affects and forces. As a consequence
of this exposure the individual undergoes a transformation. Of
particular importance is the interaction of the individual with
contra- sexual forces - as transformation is largely seen in both
traditions as based on polar exchanges.
However, how 'it' is perceived
and experienced can radically differ from person to person, and
from tradition to tradition. There is not a set dynamic here.
Some for example, may experience the underworld as a void. That
is, a de-personalisation occurs. One's accumulated, society-oriented
attributes (Jung's 'persona') is displaced allowing the individual
to reach deeper within his/her truer self. From this point of
nothingness a birth is made possible, an emergence of genuine
self attributes slowly manifests. Others may undergo an upsurgence
of neglected images and feelings, triggering access to fundamental
emotions long forgotten. How individuals react depends largely
upon their own inner geography at any given time.
The rationale to all this is
that Man is in an inharmonious or unbalanced state requiring connection
to a severed part of him/her sel£ This severed part is represented
by the underworld, in that it contains, or shows forth the way
to the essential self. Motifs of transformation; repolarisation
and the like are employed to describe this process.
Access to this realm is portrayed
in many mythologies, the most recognisable being the descent of
a mythological figure into the earth. Researchers such as J. Campbell,
M. Eliade and C. Jung have attempted to outline the stages of
the descent and re-emergence which take place in the world religions,
while various exposures of an esoteric nature have shown a similar
process to be occurring in magical systems.
The descent/re-emergence forms
the basis of many initiation rites, and is the baseline of a great
deal of esoteric and spiritual development. how these sequences
work in practise is therefore of great interest. However, knowing
the sequence doesn't imply that consciousness can be affected,
as magic is not a mechanical affair.
Knowledge of the mechanics sequence
resides in the principle of occult harmonics. The sequence allows
the individual to align him/her self with the desired goal. In
this case the underworld, images and associated effects are generated
within awareness (in the form of a ritual or a pathworking for
example) according to archetypal pattems and harmonies. The pattern
is a firmly established baseline inherent within the soul ( just
how this is conceived depends on one's orientation cf. Jung's
archetypes, DNA patterns, 'morphic fields', inner plane currents,
seasonal cycles etc...).
The pattern, however, is not
concrete and fixed. Its centre is protean in that it generates
series of images according to its inherent nature. The variations
in any one pattern are mostly due to the specific cultural context.
That is, the specifications of any geographical area give its
own unique imprint to the group mind of its residents, subtly
interweaving them. The point here is that an individual born into
a specific tradition/culture, has greater access to its inner,
esoteric traditions, due to his/her familiarity with its group
mind. 'Dissonance' can occur when an individual attempts to work
at cross-purposes with his/her natural proclivities. For example,
the death and rebirth of Osiris is not the same as that of Mithra;
but important parallels exist.
The mythos and inner dynamics
relating to the murdered Osiris are directly related to the Egyptian
psycho-spiritual condition and address specific needs and requirements
of that interactive system.
Taking material out of context
without an awareness of the totality that one is trying to effect;
believing that one can use part of a culturally defined pattern
to fill a gap in another (foreign) pattern... can only lead to
confusion on the iMer levels of the individual working such a
composite system. Hence, the sound advice "Don't mix systems"!
So, with this in mind it is interesting to see J. Campbell doing
exactly this in his famous work The Hero With A Thousand Faces.
This is obviously a vexed issue.
Campbell has done us great service by demonstrating a possible
sequence (in a comparative fashion) in the initiation of the Hero,
but the resulting picture smacks of the dusty atmosphere of a
library rather than the dramatics and energy of actual experience.
Also, his book emphasis only one form of initiation; that of the
questing hero. One must keep in mind that the sequence is contrived
in the sense that it is a composite sequence he draws examples
from many cultures. Do the various parts relate together? Is there
an harmonic relationship between the various motifs, or are they
in discord? Is it tried and tested by tradition? and most importantly,
is there inner world support for this sequence...? Although he
adeptly 'proves' that patterns do exist, he tends to ignore the
more specific culturally deterrnined idiosyncrasies which can
be so important in individual experience. For example, the relationship
between the Hero and the figures he encounters in traditional
and magical mythologies are harmoniously related in many ways,
as are their totems, weapons, symbols, attributes etc. In actual
practice simple substitution with similar figures will not carry
the requisite force. Tradition carefully carves out sequences
(not concrete, but fluid) which can be actualised by the magician,
as in the alchemical process, the stages cannot be mechanically
complied and followed, but must be the result of a deep familiarity
with the inner aspect of the tradition.
Campbell's work has introduced
thousands to the 'power of the myth', and to the mythic quest
itself... but the practicalities are mostly absent. This has been
(for better or worse), largely filled by 'human potentialists'
and the 'new age' teachers.
But the differences between genuine
magical traditions and these readily available 'psychologies'
currently enjoying mass popularity are great; Stewart mentions
many in his works... for example, "when psychology deals
with the gods, they do not exist in their own right, they have
no relationship to any universal holism or existence beyond the
human psyche".['7] The 'Human Potentialists' prefer to deal
with 'metaphors' rather than inner plane realities...
Much the same criticisms could
be said about similar researchers, Jung for example. He is somewhat
different however, due to his hands-on exposure to the Mythic
bubbling's of his patients. He was dealing with raw and unprocessed
subject matter which taught him (and not the other way round)
about the processes within the depths of the psyche. It is not
without significance that Jung was very hesitant about providing
any sequence of Individuation. Jung attempts to give the sympathetic
reader an understanding of the nature of the patterns and sequences
(viz. the Archetypes), rather than clear cut stages of development.
It is not for the analyst to impose structure onto the patient.
The unconscious must be allowed to give the lead. The unconscious
'acts', indicating areas requiring attention; in response the
analyst's task is to teach the patient how to respond adequately.
Action may or may not follow defined sequences. The issue is in
the ability of the individual to engage the unconscious/underworld
appropriately. This is reflected in Jung's injunction to his students;...
to read everything they could about mythology, and then forget
The fact that sequences can become
fossilised into lifeless ritual, as we see in Freemasonry and
other organised religions and fraternities is a testimony against
formalisation. One 'formula' or one sequence used in the same
way without maintaining contact with the underworld forces soon
looses its transformative power. The individual must therefore
remain aware of the variables involved in accessing the underworld.
The definition of patterns and sequences entails an analysis of
consciousness and its relationships to energy the structure of
form (conscious) and force (energy). An understanding of this
relationship is the key to all occult practice. Many theoreticians
have attempted to delineate this relationship, some with more
success than others. But such formalisations are inherently problematical
and should be treated with caution, and with an eye to sensing
the rhythm within the pattern, rather than the specific manifestations
in any one situation, historical or individual.
The mythology of the Native and
Hermetic traditions supply the form into which the force flows.
The force is the bedrock of all experience, how it will be gathered
and used is determined by the form i.e. the tradition. So we see
that the pattern is supplied by the tradition it holds the keys
of accessing the underworld.
One commonly employed sequences
is the classical death and rebirth of the God/Hero (or as Jung
might say, the descent or death of the ruling principle of consciousness
into the unconsciousness) and its rebirth. Or conversely, the
upsurgence of unconscious, or 'inner' material into the realm
of the ego. But just as 'initiate' refers to a beginner, so too
does this descent and ascent - for this is only the early stages
of the work undertaken in 'This Western Way.' It should be mentioned
that the dying and resurrected God sequence is only one pattern,
although a frequently used one. One should not identify 'God'
with the male gender only. There are many examples of Goddess
descent in world mythology. The issue of genda in magical practice
is very important in this respect it is of interest to see that
much work has been done by the more profound Jungians (i.e. J.
Hillman), in working towards understanding that gender can refer
to modes of consciousness rather than to physical gender only.
The initial aim of the underworld
experience is to achieve a form of contact or 'conversation' with
the principle of harmony believed to exist within the individual,
or in the world. This contact is found as a result of the underworld
experience and again, the way that this contact is perceived differs
radically from tradition to tradition. The battle between the
Oak and Holly King, results in the descent of the Holly King into
the underworld, to meet with the renewing powers of the Goddess.
He is mysteriously renewed into the Oak King via the transformative
power ofthe underworld.
The birth of the Oak King represents
the 'ideal'. It is the start of something new and pure, a new
stage of life has begun, both for the individual and for the world,
(Personality has re-emerged purified and 'made anew'). A new 'level
or centre of awareness has been found. The pattern here is one
of the most primal. Its ages are firmly embedded within man/woman's
consciousness and environment.
The essence of a workable pattern
is in its flow, its natural harmony. The Native pattern evenly
and surely flows from one stage to another, carrying the awareness
of the individual with it. The various stages are celebrated at
appropriate junctions; the above mentioned stage is Yule (the
Winter Solstice) where the God dies and is reborn as the child
of light/promise. There are many levels of understanding here.
The onset of the new year for example, is the recreation of the
world, where all is 'made anew'; the forces of rigidity have been
dissolved (winter, negativity etc.).
In this context the 'power' or
agency that does the transforming is the Goddess. It is not necessary
to possess an intellectual understanding of the nature of this
power, experience of it defies formalisation.
Here the underworld is experienced
as feminine. The God dies and descends into the realm of the God
Mother, undergoes a transformation and ascends as the new born
child of light. Though it is in the interaction of the God with
the Goddess which is important. Symbolically it can entail the
God (or Man) relating to the Goddess (or woman) in a specific
manner, it is often a matter of right orientation or positioning
of one to the other. Such interaction reflects the harmonious
interplay of the opposites; male/female; night/day etc, etc.
The Hermetic tradition is seemingly
different, covering many divergent systems or patterns, but in
essence a common thread exists, again symbolised by a descent
to a mysterious crypt or cave where the individual undergoes a
series of encounters or exchanges within the underworld. Often,
the exchange scenario is symbolised as an interaction with a Goddess
figure, or her androgynous son/daughter.
Examples of the Hermetic descent
are found within the tale of the Chemical marriage of Christian
Rosenkreutz, an alchemical description of the descent within the
'mountain/vault of the philosophers'. The prototypes for these
descents are found within the ancient religions, in the myths
of the dying and resurrected God/dess. The hermetic mythology
is often abstracted, tending towards the obscure... many motifs
and 'ground plans' (suggestive of central patterns) abound. But,
the commonality with the Native tradition is clear. Often the
style of practice can differ but the fundamentals remain astonishingly
similar. But what is actually happening? What occurs to the God/initiate
in the underworld? How is he/she transformed? Essentially, this
cannot be answered except via personal experience. This is particularly
true when one realises the individual nature and interpretation
of inner experience. The death of the God however, representing
the descent, can be taken to indicate a shift of the ego from
its customary position into a foreign world, a shadow realm. This
can happen literally, as in dramatic ritual, and/or by using Shamanic
techniques, where the individual is placed into an alternate state
of consciousness and in so doing aligns him/herself with the underworld.
More commonly, the descent, encounters and 'transformations' are
enacted either in story, meditation, or in solidarity or group
ritual. The relevant aspects of the pattern can be invoked and
meditated on, with the individual striving to understand what
the situation requires or intimates. Continual working through
of a pattern will reveal deeper levels, previously unknown. This
is especially so in regard to one's inner development and to one's
relationship to the tradition.
The results of such practices
are often not dramatic but slowly pervasive; the individual is
often not aware that changes are occurring. The ethic here is
continual effort but without want of a particular result: as the
individual continues to work through the different levels of the
pattern, insights and energy continue to inform and deepen the
pattern, establishing links with the determinants of the underworld.
The essence of such high work is subtlety. The powers of the underworld
grant a sensitivity to their currents which is the hallmark of
The Native tradition in general
views the underworld as existing in an 'otherworld', not as distant
and inaccessible, but as immanent in and around the Earth itself.
It is 'firmly situated in the Earthly sphere, in the place beyond
the sunset, eva westward, where the light is always that of twilight.'
This poetic description aptly describes the subtle nature of its
location, and indicates that it is better described as a state
of altered consciousness, not dependent on the individual, but
relative to his/ha perceptions of it. This applies equally to
the Hermetic tradition.
The question of inner world location
is trying at the best of times... most practitioners develop their
own beliefs based on their practical experience. Each tradition
and culture provides mythic locations and descriptions, often
quite different from each other... but from the experiential view
the inner world/ underworld is best approached as a basic change
in world view, which, if powerful enough, constellates various
encounters and experiences which the individual works through.
These encounters and experiences can be dramatised in ritual and
various techniques; but ultimately the energies of the underworld
manifest in the physical everyday world, where they are recognised
and dealt with. The fulcrum point here is the truly magical nature
of the imagination. It is the 'field' wherein the individual adheres
that can intersect with inner realities.
To repeat, both traditions, the
Native and the Hermetic depend for their authenticity and validity
on their level or depth of communication with the forces of the
underworld. Or, in another sense, the depth of contact could be
defined by how accurately an individual or school can mediate,
to bridge the worlds, the requisite pattern, or gate thereof,
for any one individual or group. Such an ability derives from
a knowledge of the essential nature of the pattern, indeed the
individual's life becomes part of the pattern's manifestation.
This is the true significance of a teacher, they can show the
way because they have themselves become an embodiment of their
tradition. It can be appreciated then how important such individuals
are for the life of a magical school.
Within the collective consciousness
of a group or individual, man/woman weaves the forces according
to ancient patterns or archetypes. Such patterns are the keys
to any one tradition. The relationship between the practitioner
and the pattern is determined at least initially, by the pasonal
needs of the individual. The pattern, and its consequences provide
insight and experiences helpful for the evolving magician. The
two traditions show forth the two broad patterns available to
the novice. The decision as to which one s/he chooses is determined
by that the individual requires in the way of inner development.
In many cases the choice is already made, it isn't a conscious
decision, but the pattern seems to reach out and grab you, instead
of the other way around. One can really only become involved in
something wholeheartedly if, (as Campbell says), one follows one's
bliss. This refers to the 'path' which is intimately 'you'; 'If
you follow your bliss you put yourself on a kind of track that
has been there all the while, waiting for you,...' Its the kind
of gut reactions you get when you stumble across ideas and concepts
to which you take an instant fascination for. The motive forces
behind any genuine tradition find resonance's within the alert
practitioner. The 'fascination' or 'bliss' one feels within a
tradition is the tug of the pattern luring one within its orbit
of influence... this is the first true step into the mysteries.
 It is encouraging to see several well known
representatives of the Native and Hermetic traditions working
towards 'unifying' the disparate traditions, or at least to encourage
them to recognise their mutual validity.
 The word 'Magic', when used, designates both
Hermetic and Native traditions.
 Bayley, H. The Lost Language of Symbolism.
Citadel Press, page 190.
 Stewart, R.J., Living Magical Arts. Blandford
Press 1987. Advanced Magical Arts. Elernent. 1988. Underworld
Initiation. Aquarian. 1985.
 Stewart, R.J. Advanced Magical Arts. Element.
 "The amalgams of various teachings which
are believed to provide new synthesis for modern man ' are more
conglomerations offormulations which by producing a land of mixture,
have altered the dynamic of all of them. " (I. Shah, Evenings
with Idries Shah. Designist Comm. 1981. p17.)
 Stewart, R.J. The God in Western Magical Arts,
in Choirs of The Gods. Ed J Matthews. Mandala. 1991 pl 19.
 Matthews, J & C. The Western Way. Vol.
1. Arcarla. 1986. p107.
 Farrar, J & S. A Witches Bible Compleat.
Magickal Childe. 1984. p137.